Cause and Effect
  • Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text-Identify explicit cause and effect relationships among ideas in texts;

Cause and Effect Lesson:
Objective: Students will be able to identify cause and effect in expository text

Mini Lesson Day 1 and 2
1. Activate prior knowledge about cause and effect by suggesting that a student (or pair of students) act out what happens when he or she eats too much too quickly or when he or she does not get enough sleep. When the student is finished ask the class what the end result is (i.e., a stomachache); explain that this is the effect. Ask students to tell you what has caused this effect (i.e., shoveling in large amounts of food).
Questioning: Where do they think they might see cause and effect? What type of book or text might contain this kind of structure?

3. Introduce the graphic organizer or the organizer you prepared on chart paper. Discuss the importance of organizing ideas and concepts from informational text.
Questioning: How will creating this graphic organizer help us to understand what we read? Will this graphic organizer help us to better remember the information? How might we show cause-and-effect relationships on a graphic organizer?

4. As you begin to read a PERSUASIVE TEXT and or NONFICTION SUN TEXT aloud, model the thought process behind discovering cause-and-effect relationships also put several cause and effect relationships in your chart.

Think Aloud for Non Fiction:, "As I begin reading....., I see that there are lots of interesting pictures of this book. I bet I will learn some new information about...... when I read this book." After reading the second page of the book say, "I wonder what causes .....? I bet I will learn that when I read further." After reading the next page say, "I see a key word that makes me think there is a cause-and-effect relationship on this page.

5. After you have modeled several cause and effect relationships, ask students to think about other cause-and-effect relationships they can listen for as you finish reading the book aloud to them. Fill in the graphic organizer by guiding students to share the cause-and-effect relationships they heard while listening to the book. Questioning: "What happens after ....?" and This should spark some ideas about cause-and-effect relationships that you can then write on the chart paper.

7. After completing the organizer, review the key words that signal a cause-and-effect relationship (e.g., if, so, so that, because of, as a result of, since, in order to, cause, and effect) Record this list on chart paper for future reference. The cause comes first in the situation not necessarily stated first in the sentence. Practice a few examples from the C/E Game.

8. Distribute or put up on the projector the Cause-and-Effect Graphic Organizer Rubric and review it with students. Explain that you will use it to assess the organizers they create in their groups or individually and that they will be using their graphic organizers. Look at your chart that you made together and grade your model. They will practice throughout the week and on Friday they will assessed.

What is Cause and Effect?
What happens and why is called cause and effect.
Why something happens is the cause.
What happens because of the cause is the effect.
· A cause is the reason that something happens.
· An effect is the result, or what happens because of the cause.

Day 2-4
Mini lessons: Cause and Effect VideoShow the video and practice whole class, PowerPoint.

Guided Reading: Students will practice identifying Cause and Effect at their instructional reading level, you can any of the graphic organizers, the arrow one is the one for the common ass. Play C/E Game

Independent: In reading Reading Response Letter, students describe and cause and effect relationship, Student practice C/E in their RR Journal
Intervention/Centers: C/E Game, or Worksheet
Cross Curricular: Practice C/E in Science and Social studies text. Mistakes That Worked: 40 Familiar Inventions and How They Came to Be

Additional Resources:
More Cause and Effect Key Words: Since, because, thus, therefore, so due to, as a consequence, accordingly, for this reason, if…then, as a result, in order to,next, effects of, how to, is caused by, so that, when…then, finally, how, leads/led to, steps involved, begins with, first

Cause and Effect Game from the library

Cause and Effect Game to Make with Students

Cause and Effect with Fiction:
Goldilocks and the Three Bears.
· Ask, “What caused Goldilocks to eat the porridge from the little bowl? (It was just right). “What caused Goldilocks to sit in the little chair?” Keep asking cause and effect questions such as, “What caused the chair to be broken into bits?” Point out key words that you use “caused” and key words that students use in their response such as “because.”

Extensive Plans


Mistakes That Worked: 40 Familiar Inventions and How They Came to Be by Charlotte Foltz Jones and think this book is a fun way to talk about real-life cause and effect scenarios. From post-it notes to Velcro, this is a highly entertaining book!
Pearson Book: A Whole New World, 4th Grade Level
Why Mosquitos Buzz in Other Peoples' Ears
Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day
Chicken Little - Steven Kellog
Runaway Bunny
Very Hungry Caterpillar
Rosie's Walk
Snowy Day
Bringing the Rain To Kapiti Plain
Big Bad Bruce Jumanji
Muggie Maggie
Chocolate Fever
Pamela Camel by Bill Peet
Just For You by Mercer Meyer
Today was a Terrible Day by Patricia Reilly Giff
Legend of the Bluebonnet by Tomie de Paola
The Terrible EEK!
If You Give A Moose A Muffin
If You Give A Pig A Pancake
Sylvester and the Magic Pebble by William Steig
The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash - Noble, Trinka Hakes.
Five Little Monkeys Jumping On The Bed - Christeow , Eileen
The Grouchy Ladybug - Carle, Eric
If you Give a Moose a Muffin - Numeroff, Laura.
If you give a Mouse a Cookie - Numeroff , Laura.
The Napping House - Wood, Audrey and Don.
One Fine Day - Hogrogian, Nonny.
The Runaway Bunny Brown - Wise, Margaret.
Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People’s Ears -Aardema,Verna
The 3 Pigs

Common Assessment:
Second Nine Week CE ASS: It has a short passage and two questions. There is also one question worth a majority of their grade. It is worth 12 of the 14 points on the whole test. The students can use their book from the week to fill in the graphic organizer or they can use the passage to fill in the graphic organizer. It is the teachers choice. Use the rubric to grade the performance part of the CA. Total Points for this is 14.